After the unification of Italy in 1870, the country was run by a series of liberal governments. The period between 1870-1922 was an era that faced several major problems – unemployment, poverty, a lack of national identity, and the especially the Great War. Italy fell behind many of the leading European nations and the people of Italy became convulsed and angry. The participation and result of the Great War did not help Italy's cause out. World War 1 put a strain on Italy's precarious economy and the result of the treaties of Versailles did not make anythign better. The Liberal parliamentary regime could solve almost none of the perplexing problems. The Italian people were chagrined that the government could not get things sorted out; regain the lost land and restore the state in which Italy used to prosper in. Some Italians looked back to the days of the Romans, which motivated them to become as dominant and as powerful as the Romans once were.

When Mussolini created the Fascist party in 1919, he realized the woes and dismays of the Italian people. Mussolini took advantage of the bad economic conditions that existed after the Great War. On March 23, 1919, Mussolini and other veterans formed the National Fascist Party which grew in popularity among the people of Italy, who were disenchanted with the chaos surrounding them. Though in November of the same year Mussolini created the Fascist party, that month saw him suffer a humiliating defeat in the elections. However, his party grew and by 1921 gained 35 seats in the elections, an improvement from last time. By the year of 1921, however, his Fascist party received the support from many of the peoples, and Mussolini gained entrance to Parliament.

On October 24, 1922, before a sum of 60, 000 people in the Fascist Congress in Naples, Mussolini declared “Our plan is simple: we want to rule Italy”. Meanwhile, the Blackshirts, which were formed to break up strikes and riots caused amongst the people of Italy, siezed the Po plains and took control all strategic points in the country. Mussolini then lead a group of 30, 000 Fascists who supported his cause towards the palace of King Victor Emmanuel III, who was the king of Italy at that time. When met by Mussolini, Emmanuel handed the power over to him who was supported by the military, the business class, and the right-wing. The king feared of a civil war, and since the Blackshirts had already taken over the Po plain, all hope was futile.

Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1922, but did not introduce a dictatorship until 1925. During these three years, however, Mussolini had to make sure that no one would oppose him. Therefore, he assassinated key political rivals such as the assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteoti and disposed of several other key people in other rivaling parties. After introducing a dictatorship in 1925, Mussolini and his Fascist party remained in power until 1943 where he lost power and was assassinated by gunfire in April 28th of 1945.